Archeology radiocarbon dating
His maps and descriptions, particularly of the areas of Jalālābād and Hadda and of Bagrām, were pioneering contributions, although his “excavations” were unscientific (see his , Calcutta, 1841). Scientific exploration in Afghanistan began after September, 1922, when A. Foucher signed, on behalf of the French government, a diplomatic treaty with Afghanistan. In it was recognized the establishment of the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan (DAFA). C.: One fragment of beaten, bossed copper was found along with many flint implements and pottery. Ṭelā Tapa near Šebarḡān and Delbarǰīn Kazān near Dašlī clarify the evolution of a distinctive Central Asian culture out of the Bactrian during the Kushan and Buddhist phase of northwest Afghanistan (for publications, see Kruglikova, ed., I-II, Moscow, 1976-79, and the survey below). Excavations at four localities yielded a sequence from about 18,000 B. to the Later Iron Age; carbon 14 dates were obtained for most cultural periods. Archeological research and restoration inside Afghanistan virtually ceased after the Soviet intervention in 1979. The first tools definitely of this period to be identified in Afghanistan were removed from the surface of terraces east of a shallow, brackish lake. Dara-ye Kūr, Bābā Darvīš; Badaḵšān (AMNH, Dupree, 1966). Qara Kamar, near Aybak; Samangān (University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, C. A rock-shelter, the first Paleolithic site excavated in Afghanistan, was dated by carbon 14. Upper Paleolithic finds included a sculptured limestone pebble which represents the oldest piece of portable cave art in Asia (Plate XIX/1), incised spatulas, points, and awls made of bone, and a flint toolkit: blades, cores, utilized and retouched side- and end-scrapers, burins, keeled scrapers, points, a micro-industry, and combination tools (“Prehistoric Research in Afghanistan [1959-1966],” N. Meanwhile the British Academy founded the British Institute of Afghan Studies in 1972 (R. Its first excavations, in the old city at Qandahār, were initiated under D. From the beginnings of systematic archeology in Afghanistan, some Afghan scholars, such as A. When the Afghan Institute of Archaeology (AIA) was established in 1966, he became its first director-general: he was succeeded from 1973 to 1979 by Z. As a result of a UNESCO-sponsored conference in Dushanbe in 1968, a Kushan Center was established within the AIA; and in 1970 an international meeting on the coordination of Kushan studies and archaeological research in Central Asia held in Kabul resolved to publish works on the progress of Kushan studies. Besides these initiatives, the joint Afghan/Soviet Archaeological Mission, co-directed by I. Kruglikova (1969 on), has worked north of the Hindu Kush in sites ranging from the Stone Age to the medieval period. A single-occupation, open-air site was investigated. The surface-collected flints closely resembled the industry of Āq Koprūk; they were mainly flake tools precisely struck—microcores and microblades (R.
French research concentrated on pinpointing evidence for the spread of Hellenism, tracing the silk route, and studying the relationship of Gandharan art to the Buddhist art of the Afghan area. Further important finds are noted in the survey section, below. Is MEO’s excavations reports, as well as other archeological studies, are published in its journal, . Other important research in the Islamic period has included K. The finds from this excavation are on display in a 10th/16th-century mausoleum restored by Is MEO (A. Bruno, 1966); the Italian restoration program also included the mosque of Shah Jahān in Bābor’s Garden, Kabul (1964-66).